Surgically, more and more cases are performed through tiny incisions for minimal scarring. Don’t let that underestimate the size of the procedure. For example, mitral valve surgery is still a common procedure that involves a sternotomy (“cracking the chest”) and stopping the heart — it’s a big procedure. However, surgeons have become adept at making smaller incisions while still undergoing the big procedure.
Chauhan S, Sukesan S. Anesthesia for robotic cardiac surgery: An amalgam of technology and skill. Ann Card Anaesth [serial online] 2010 [cited 2016 Apr 12];13:169-75. Available from: http://www.annals.in/text.asp?2010/13/2/169/62947